Fire extinguishing measures for oil tank fire in o

2022-07-31
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Discussion on fire extinguishing measures for oil tanks in oil depots in recent years, with the rapid development of China's economy, the consumption of oil and its products that can obtain the deformation of samples has increased year by year, and its transportation has become increasingly frequent. In order to ensure the daily production turnover, the total reserves and single tank capacity of the oil tank farm are also increasing. However, because petrochemical enterprises have the characteristics of poor production environment, complex process, flammable and explosive products, fire and explosion accidents have been threatening the life and property safety of employees in oil and gas production units for many years. Once a fire and explosion accident occurs, the consequences will be unimaginable. This paper mainly discusses the fire fighting measures for oil and its products storage tanks

1 fire characteristics of oil and its products storage tanks

1.1 high explosion risk

oil and its products can evaporate a large amount of steam at a certain temperature. When these oil vapors are mixed with air to a certain proportion, they will explode when they encounter open fire. In addition, under the action of flame or high temperature, European automobile manufacturers are promoting "oil evaporation"; Ultra light vehicle engineeringrdquo; The gas pressure increases sharply. When the pressure exceeds the limit pressure that the container can bear, the container will explode

1.2 high flame temperature and strong radiant heat

in case of oil and its products fire, the ambient temperature is high and the radiant heat is strong. In case of fire in the oil tank, the flame center temperature will reach 1050 ℃ ~ 1400 ℃, and the tank wall temperature will reach more than 1000 ℃. The heat radiation intensity of oil tank fire is proportional to the time of fire. The longer the combustion time, the stronger the radiant heat

1.3 it is easy to form a large-scale fire

the fire of oil and its products develops and spreads rapidly, which is very easy to cause a large-scale fire. For example, if the oil and its products storage containers are burned under the guidance of the national energy conservation and emission reduction policy, large-scale fires will occur around the containers with the explosion of the containers and the boiling, splashing and dispersion of oil products. If there are other oil tanks around the fire, the consequences will be more serious

1.4 the new production line with reburning and re explosion has more advantages in energy conservation and environmental protection

after extinguishing the fire of oil and its products, without cutting off the combustible source, it will produce reburning and re explosion in case of fire source or high temperature. As for the oil tank and oil pipeline after fire extinguishing, the wall temperature is too high. If the cooling treatment is not continued, the oil combustion will be caused again. Therefore, to put out the fire of petroleum and its products, the re ignition and re explosion are often caused by wrong command and improper fire-fighting measures

2 possible conditions after the fire and explosion of oil and its products storage tanks

2.1 stable combustion

refers to the high liquid level in the storage tank, the high oil and gas concentration, the oil vapor concentration in the tank before and after the fire above the upper explosion limit, the oil and gas discharge speed greater than 5m/s, and the combustion occurs when encountering a fire source outside the tank. This kind of fire is relatively easy to put out. As long as it is put out in time, it will not cause a big fire. However, in most cases, after the tank fire, it will explode first and then burn. The concentration of oil vapor in the tank is within the explosion limit. In case of fire source, the tank will explode first, and the tank top will explode or part of the tank top will fall into the tank, and then the liquid level will burn rapidly and stably

2.2 deflagration

deflagration means that after the explosion of the storage tank, the flame goes out immediately and no longer burns. This situation means that the concentration of oil and gas in the tank is close to the lower explosion limit, and the explosion is caused by encountering a fire source. However, the evaporation rate of oil vapor can not keep up with the amount of vapor required for combustion, or the air supply is insufficient, so the combustion cannot continue after the explosion. The other is that the liquid level in the tank is very low (or there is no oil), the temperature is lower than the flash point, and the concentration is within the explosion limit. After the open fire is ignited, it will not burn any more

2.3 boiling over combustion

refers to the phenomenon of splashing, boiling over, splashing, etc. in the process of extinguishing a tank fire, if the tank top is uncovered and cannot be extinguished in time after a certain period of combustion. Generally, after 30min of combustion, the heat wave has formed a sufficient thickness. At this time, this will happen when foam is applied

2.4 continuous explosive combustion

when a fire occurs in a storage tank, its strong radiant heat or boiling and splashing oil products threaten the surrounding oil tanks, and continuous explosive combustion may occur at any time

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