Fire risk and preventive measures in gathering places public gathering places refer to places with dense personnel (schools, museums) such as song and dance halls, cinemas, hotels, restaurants, shopping malls, market markets, etc. Public gathering places are usually luxuriously decorated, with large shared space, many commodities and most of them are combustibles. Once a fire occurs, it is difficult to rescue, often resulting in a vicious accident of mass death and injury. Therefore, it is very important to strengthen the public gathering. Therefore, the disposal of waste plastic particles will become a hot spot for future development. The fire safety management of gathering places is very important
however, due to various reasons such as insufficient fire-fighting facilities and poor management in public gathering places, fire hazards are very prominent, fires occur frequently, and major fire accidents are also reported from time to time, resulting in irreparable property losses and casualties. The painful lessons have been ringing the alarm to people: fire and water are merciless, and fire safety can not be ignored. As a fire prevention supervisor, the author believes that first of all, we should recognize the fire risk of such places, determine preventive countermeasures, and strengthen the management of such places, so as to avoid and reduce the occurrence of vicious fire accidents such as mass casualties
I. fire risk of public gathering places
1. Large building space and fast fire spread
the vast majority of public gathering places contain many people and large building space. There are many vertical shafts in the building, such as stairwells, elevator shafts, pipe shafts, cable shafts, garbage shafts and sewage shafts, which are like big smoke fontanels; The ventilation ducts cross vertically and horizontally and extend to every corner of the building. In case of a fire, the smoke fontanel effect produced by the shaft will make the flame quickly spread along the shaft and ventilation duct, and the aftertaste of the oil cylinder in the east area will be expanded, endangering the whole building. There are also some buildings with low fire resistance rating, and the density of booth counters is too high. Once a fire breaks out, it will burn the camp and cause heavy casualties
2. There are many combustibles used in business, and the fire load is large.
there are many combustibles used in public gathering places, which are prone to fire. For example, the projection room of the theater often uses the flammable liquid acetone as the bonding agent, and some old films are flammable nitrocellulose sheets; In the process of drama performance, flammable and explosive materials are used to wash wigs with gasoline and ether, to dress up for drama and to set off fireworks; In the navigation and aviation model rooms of the Cultural Palace and the Youth Palace, in order to make the aviation model materials take shape, the quick drying glue made of inflammables such as banana water, acetone and celluloid needs to be used as the adhesive. At the same time, most of the scenes and props used on the stage are inflammables. If these substances are mismanaged, they are easy to cause fire in case of fire source. In particular, the nightclubs, dance halls, entertainment centers, karaoke music and dance cafes, etc. are decorated with a great deal of wood, plastic fiber fabrics and other combustible materials. The fire load is large. Once a fire occurs, it is bound to burn violently and spread rapidly
large and medium-sized shopping malls and fairs have a wide range of business and a wide variety of commodities, most of which are combustible. In case of fire, the loss is often huge
3. There are many electrical appliances and ignition sources
there are many electric heating appliances and ignition sources in public gathering places, such as movie theaters, song and dance halls, gymnasiums and other places. There are dozens of desk lamps, ceiling lamps, set lamps and surface lights used in the business process, and they are large in quantity and power. In addition, various kinds of noise equipment, if used improperly, it is easy to cause local overload, line short circuit and fire
most of the electrical lighting equipment in the mall is installed on the top, column and wall of the mall. The lighting and decorative lamps are mostly installed in groups. Most of the lamps are installed in the ceiling, and the ballast is prone to heat and fire
4. The personnel are highly concentrated and the fire hazard is great.
just repeat 28; The biggest feature of the crowd gathering place is its strong sociality and concentration of people. Due to the high concentration of personnel, the evacuation time is long. In case of fire, multiple sets of equipment can be purchased at the same time. In the production range, the personnel are panic stricken, crowded with each other, and the evacuation time is longer. Especially in the case of power failure without lighting and pyrotechnic threat, it will cause chaos. The flow of people is easy to block the outlet, resulting in personal accidents such as crush injury, trample injury and burn. Some initial fires are not easy to be detected by people and can not be put out in a timely and effective manner, leading to major fires